The Paris Climate Agreement, also known as the Paris Agreement, is a legally binding international treaty that aims to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius. The agreement was adopted by 196 parties at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris in December 2015.
One of the key aspects of the Paris Agreement is the commitment of each party to submit nationally determined contributions (NDCs) that outline their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the effects of climate change. These NDCs are critical for achieving the overall goal of the agreement, as they represent the collective efforts of all parties to address the global climate crisis.
So, how much does each country put into the Paris Climate Agreement? The answer varies depending on the country and its level of commitment to the agreement.
The United States, under the Obama administration, pledged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 26-28% below 2005 levels by 2025. However, the Trump administration announced its intention to withdraw from the Paris Agreement in 2017, although President Joe Biden has since rejoined the agreement.
China, the world`s largest emitter of greenhouse gases, pledged to peak its emissions by 2030 and to increase the share of non-fossil fuels in its energy mix to 20% by the same year. India, the world`s third-largest emitter, pledged to reduce its emissions intensity (emissions per unit of GDP) by 33-35% by 2030 compared to 2005 levels.
European Union countries jointly pledged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% below 1990 levels by 2030. The United Kingdom, which left the EU in 2020, has a legally binding target to reduce emissions by 68% by 2030 compared with 1990 levels.
Developing countries, including many small island nations that are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, have also made commitments under the Paris Agreement. These commitments often focus on adaptation measures, such as building seawalls and implementing early warning systems for extreme weather events.
Overall, the Paris Climate Agreement represents the collective efforts of all parties to address the global climate crisis. While each country`s commitment varies based on its unique circumstances, all parties have acknowledged the urgent need to take action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate the effects of climate change.